CHAPTER 5. Offshore Energy Exploration Activities and the Exclusive Economic Zone Regime: A Case Study of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin
Georgios Chrysochou and Dimitrios Dalaklis
Abstract: The concept of an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) has been described as a «peaceful revolution» in international law and as the most significant development in the Law of the Sea, since Grotius wrote his famous work, «Mare Liberum». With the establishment of the EEZ, the conflict between Grotius (mare liberum) and Selden (mare clausum) seems to have been won by the latter. Although this is true, and it expresses the victory of the extension of coastal jurisdiction to maritime areas at the expense of its free use and exploitation by all states, what is most important is that the rational and functional use of the sea by all its users should prevail, in conformity with the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC) provisions. This stands true since the promotion of international co-operation to achieve a more rational exploitation of the wealth of the oceans is paramount for the global community. The establishment of the EEZ has resulted in a drastic reduction of the area covered by the high seas. Thus, around 95% of world fishing areas and more than 80% of the known underwater oil reserves have come under the exclusive control of coastal states. Interestingly enough, among the rights of coastal states within their EEZs is the issue of offshore energy activities, which has traditionally created tension between neighboring states regarding the delimitation of that zone. Consequently, a problematic relation between these energy exploration activities and the legal regime of the EEZ is identified; maritime delimitation issues between adjacent states can also negatively influence the use of certain maritime energy supply routes
CHAPTER 24 - Protecting the Arctic Environment: Challenges and Opportunities for Liquefied Natural Gas
Dimitrios Dalaklis, Aykut Ölcer, Fabio Ballini, and Jarrod Dewitz Lcdr
Numerous scientific records of climate indicators and in-depth statistical analyses thereof testify that the impact of the phenomenon of global warming is becoming increasingly evident. Weather patterns have already been severely altered in various regions of the Earth, with the case of the Arctic clearly standing out. As ice coverage in this region maintains its downward trend, the creation of new and significant business opportunities should, however, be noted. Maritime routes that were previously covered with ice packs are now becoming available for shipping; the promise for shorter voyages from Asia towards Europe and/or the Americas (and vice-versa) is enticing to say the least. Additionally, the reduction of ice in the wider arctic region could facilitate the extraction of the numerous natural resources (and especially energyrelated ones) available in all those frozen areas, which were previously widely considered as unsuitable for any type of business. The analysis in hand will briefly highlight the decline of ice coverage in the Arctic and elaborate on its main consequence in relation to the contemporary global maritime transport system: the creation of the so-called "Arctic Passages". Additionally, it will provide a summary of the current regulatory framework associated with the region under discussion and especially the provisions of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code or PCD). Furthermore, considering petroleum is today the primary marine fuel source within commercial shipping, this analysis will expand upon previous research efforts into how to preserve the arctic environment by limiting the use of such oil fuels. Therefore, it will explore the use of alternative sources, specifically in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG), as a way to reduce the environmental impact of petroleum spilled within the pristine arctic waters in the event of an accidental discharge, as well as to decrease air pollutants.
Expanding the Use of Liquefied Natural Gas in the Baltic Sea Region via Tailor-made Training Activities
D. Dalaklis, M. Kitada, A.I. Ölçer, A. Schönborn, M. Canepa, and F. Ballini
A. Schönborn, D. Dalaklis, A.I Ölçer, M. Kitada, M. Canepa, and F. Ballini
CHAPTER 7 - Making the Case: Simulators for Offshore Renewable Energy Installations Navigational Risk Assessment
Razi Ali Mehdi, Michael Baldauf, Dimitrios Dalaklis, and Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs
In the analysis at hand, the authors consider if, and how, ship handling simulators can be used to feasibly augment existing navigational risk assessment (NRA) studies – particularly those concerning offshore renewable energy installations (OREIs). In order to achieve their aim, they have conducted an experimental pilot study that allowed them to observe, assess and quantify navigational behaviour in the vicinity of an offshore wind farm (OWF). The authors also suggest how simulators can be used to improve the quantification of various parameters that are used in existing NRA models and methods. Lastly, they discuss how simulators can be used to augment traditional stakeholder ‘workshops’ to further optimise the use of limited sea-space
CHAPTER 3 - Enhancing Maritime Security in Mexico: Privatization, Militarization, or a combination of both?
Adriana Ávila-Zúñiga-Nordfjeld and Dimitrios Dalaklis
The current analysis examines three different solutions that Mexico implemented within its ports and offshore installations in order to improve the country’s maritime security framework, as well as ensuring compliance with the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code): privatisation, militarisation and, finally, their combination. The findings of an on-going research effort include inconsistencies within the data of the necessary security incident records, or even their total absence. Inadequate competence and training among the Port Facility Security Officers (PFSO) also stands out. Another important issue was the use of different procedures among the ports under investigation for dealing with exactly the same security incidents. The clear conclusion is that after twelve years of the ISPS Code implementation, Mexico, which is leading the Interamerican Port’s Commission of the Organisation of American States (OAS), does not comply with the requirements of the ISPS Code at an acceptable level; the lack of a national maritime security policy has resulted in a poor (maritime) security culture, despite the severe (security) challenges that this nation is facing. It is also true that the country under discussion is currently reorganising its maritime security apparatus, with some positive results; tools and recommendations for enhancing the Mexican maritime security operating framework are therefore provided, along with areas of potential future research
Azmath Jaleel and Devinder Grewal
Yong Bai and Wei-Liang Jin
There are many rules that need to be followed when designing hulls of the ship. The term “scantling” refers to the determination of geometrical dimensions (such as wall thickness and sectional modules) for a structural component/system. The initial scantling design is one of the most important and challenging tasks throughout the entire structural design process. This chapter introduces the design equations for tankers based on IACS (International Association of Classification Societies) requirements and classification rules (e.g., ABS, 2002). The understanding of the ship hulls strengths, buckling points, weaknesses, and the rules and restrictions of designing a ship is goal of this chapter.
This chapter describes the range of safety critical communications that occur in high hazard industries, what can go wrong and how to reduce the likelihood of communication error. Safety critical communication can occur in any part of the operating cycle from normal operation to emergency response. The high likelihood of errors and misunderstandings during these communications is illustrated using a person-to-person communication model, and the potential consequences of these errors are highlighted using industry examples. The key learnings from incidents involving a breakdown in safety critical communications are extrapolated and discussed. A number of communication methods and techniques that can be used to reduce errors are discussed and their relative strengths and weaknesses highlighted.
Barry I- Graubard and Edward L. Korn
Barry I. Graubard and Edward L. Korn
The scatterplot is one of the most useful graphical displays of bivariate data. It allows one to see general trends and atypical points simultaneously, as well as other aspects of the data. A second feature of survey data is that some of it may be imputed to account for item non-response. A third feature is that the sample sizes can be large. A fourth feature is that the observations may have intraclass correlation due to cluster sampling. Survey designs typically specify that individuals are to be sampled with unequal probabilities of selection. The sample weight associated with an individual is the inverse of that individual's probability of being included in the sample, adjusted, if necessary, for non-response. For some applications, it may be useful to sample points for a sampled scatterplot not just proportionally to the sample weights. More direct approaches to estimating smooth conditional percentile or mean curves are possible using the original ungrouped data.
J. H.S. Blaxter
This chapter focuses on the species of Krill. It discusses the body form of the species and marked variations that were revealed during studies by various experts. The body form of a species can often vary, in some cases quite markedly. Mauchline and Fisher refer to the descriptions of forms of Thysanoessa inermis, Nematoscelis dificitis, Stylocheiron affine, and S. longicorne. Reference is also made to the smaller degrees of variation and to sexual dimorphism found among the following species: Euphausia diomedeae, E. triacantha, E. similis, E. vallentini, Nematoscelis microps, N. atlantica, and N. tenella. New forms of species have been described and further accounts of variation within species are now available. The chapter describes the similar as well as varied features between a male and a female krill and elaborates on the key identifiers between them. It also briefly discusses the key anatomic aspects of the species and traces the path of its evolution.
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