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Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
Slow steaming strategies have been implemented by most shipping lines and significantly reduce CO2 emissions from international shipping. This article measures the rate at which CO2 emissions have been reduced for various container trades and estimates the bunker break-even price at which this strategy is sustainable in the long run. It is found that shows such reductions can only be sustained given a bunker price of at least $350–$400 for the main container trades.