Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Maritime Affairs


Port Management


Malmö, Sweden



First Advisor

Daniel Seong-Hyeok Moon

Second Advisor

Aykut Ölçer


The research focus is to examine rigorously how the implementation of Lean within the Umm Qasr Port improves the operation processes and to explore the Lean impact on environment improvement and energy efficiency management. In this research, the ROPMEE model has been developed by the researcher to evaluate the service quality in the cargo delivery process in the Port of Umm Qasr as it covers all the functional and non-functional areas in the cargo delivery process compared to other quality dimensions. The findings confirm that the process quality dimension is the most influential factor in service quality in the Port of Umm Qasr. The reasons for the poor performance of current practices adopted by the port are the use of traditional ways of information flow and a decision-making process that requires more time and steps within the whole process. The lack of smooth process flow is a potential cause of bottlenecks within port operation that create serious problems not only for the customer but also for the port itself.

In this research, a visual representation is created of how the current value stream map for different port processes has been established on the identification and elimination of non- value-added activity or “waste” involved in delivering services in Umm Qasr port for customers. A VSM tool was applied to visually map the cargo handling flow, ship entrance, ship maneuvering and cargo clearance to display the current and future states of processes in a way that highlights opportunities for improvement. Based on the defined and classified waste according to the seven deadly wastes of Lean, this research suggests a future value stream map for port processes. The impact of the identified wastes has been quantified in terms of cost, carbon dioxide emissions working time efficiency, and energy consumption cost. This research is the first attempt to develop a Lean port model for improving port processes, as there have been no previous studies aimed at providing a holistic framework for improving port performance, which can be used by other ports. Implementing the Lean approach requires a gradual shift in work culture by involving all port employees and customers in the continuous improvement process and changing the service delivery from a push to pull system.