Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Maritime Affairs


Ph.D (Maritime Affairs)


Malmö, Sweden



First Advisor

Aykut Ölçer

Second Advisor

Olof Lindén


There are two major motivations to this research. The first is based on the concerns raised at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) MEPC 67 and 68 meetings regarding the capacity of some type-approved Ballast Water Management (BWM) Systems to meet the performance standard (D-2) of the BWM Convention at-all-times and in all conditions. The second is based on the reluctance expressed by some ship- owners to install the system onboard their ships as a Lloyd's list survey suggested.

In this work, an attempt was made to address these issues and concerns using a set of criteria stipulated in Regulation D-5.2 of the BWM Convention which provides the framework for reviewing and evaluating the practical concepts of managing ballast water, developing a conceptual model for managing ballast water and minimizing the contributions of human-error to BWM System performance by analyzing the associated operational human factors. Firstly, the design of a conceptual model of managing ballast water and the evaluation of some established practical concepts of BWM were achieved by using a suitable technique (Axiomatic Design or AD) which was selected via a robust procedure. The two axioms of Axiomatic Design (information and independence) were used to evaluate four different concepts of managing ballast water as well as develop a BWM Convention-compliant conceptual design matrix model respectively. Based on data collected from ballast water management experts, Post-loading Onshore Ballast Water Management System was shown to be the most appropriate ballast water management concept with respect to the Regulation D-5.2 set of criteria. This presents a paradigm shift in expert preference from traditional shipboard systems to onshore systems with respect to the IMO-criteria.

The pathway for improved performance of the Convention-compliant design matrix was subsequently determined and prioritised using Sufield model of Altshuler's theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ). Lastly, a 5-step algorithm was developed to minimise operator errors in the BWM System’s operation. Fatigue and training were found to have the greatest impact on operator performance.