FRAM in FSA - Introducing a Function-Based Approach to the Formal Safety Assessment Framework

Gesa Praetorius, World Maritime University
Armando Graziano, World Maritime University
Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs, World Maritime University
Michael Baldauf, World Maritime University


Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is a structured methodology in maritime safety rule making processes. FSA takes organizational, technical and human-related factors into concern. While the method allows for the use of expert input during the identification of hazards and risk control options, the FSA guidelines give preference to assessment methods grounded in quantitative risk assessment. No specific guidance is given on how expert input should be obtained. This article therefore presents the findings of a pilot study with the objective to introduce the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) as a method to enrich FSA studies through structured expert input. Two focus groups (n = 6) were conducted to compare hazards and risk control options identified in one scenario with the help of fault tree analysis and FRAM. The results of the study show that FRAM has the potential to enrich hazard identification as a complementary tool.