Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Conference Name

10th World Conference on Transport Research

Conference Location

Istanbul, Turkey

Conference Dates

4-8 July 2004

Last Page


Publication Date



Environmental impacts of urban transport in developing countries are well known as indicated through many examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Policies and countermeasures are classified and listed as well as the numerous involved actors, variables and effects. A pragmatic approach is needed to ensure success and sustainability of the solutions. The paper discusses main barriers impeding applicability, success and sustainability of mitigation policies and countermeasures. It also outlines the complexity of handling and modelling such multivariate problem of policies, actors, variables and effects. A simplified approach is suggested, which can ensure applicability, implement-ability, success and sustainability of policies and countermeasures. The paper addresses the need to achieve balance between facing the problem with “immediate vision” and the importance of looking to “future needs”, between “simplifying the analysis” and “comprehensiveness” and between the ambition of setting out “ideal objectives and policies” and the importance of being “pragmatic” in view of the prevailing city constraints. Recommended practical directions on designing achievable objectives and policies are given.