South baltic oil spill response through clean-up with biogenic oil binders project : the SBOIL handbook
Dimitrios Dalaklis, Elif Bal Besikci, Jennie Larsson, Anastasia Christodoulou, Tafsir Matin Johansson, Johan Pålsson, Henrik Nilsson, Fokke Saathoff, Marcus Siewert, and Wiesław Juszkiewicz
Without international cooperation, individual countries are usually lacking sufficient resources and assets for successfully responding to large-scale oil spill incidents. This end-result might be related to the vast quantities of oil involved in those incidents, or just to the fact that the necessary special equipment for dealing with the tasks at hand is not available/possessed by that one country under the need to respond, although it can be rather easily provided by a neighboring one. For successfully resolving oil spill incidents, close and effective international cooperation (especially between neighboring countries that usually face similar issues and “share the burden” of oil pollution in case the response is unsatisfactory) is obviously a vital necessity.
The contemporary world relies heavily on oil to cover its energy needs. Unfortunately, oil spills at the locations of production, or during the associated transport endeavors continue to be one of the major threats to both society and the environment at the global level. Oil spills actually pose a greater threat in areas associated with major shipping routes, areas around pipelines and onshore/offshore rigs, as well as in the vicinity of oil and gas processing infrastructures. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14, requires protection of our ocean, marine life and resources; therefore, minimizing possible oil spill incidents and their adverse impacts should be deemed as a very high priority.
The project “South Baltic Oil spill response” (SBOIL) was co-funded by the European Union’s (EU) South Baltic Program, covering the period from summer of 2016 to the end of 2019. The University of Rostock, as the leading partner, cooperated with the World Maritime University and the Maritime University of Szczecin on the issue of “Oil Spill Response within the South Baltic Sea Region”, following the clean-up with biogenic oil binders perspective. SBOIL is a continuation of the project BioBind, which mainly focused on the creation and introduction into service of an oil recovery system designed for coastal waters, shallow areas and adverse weather conditions. The BioBind approach established a methodology relying on biodegradable oil binders that are deployed by airplanes and/or helicopters. The removal process involves a special net-boom, comprising of fishing nets and conventional containment booms. The project SBOIL aims to use this new “green” technology to improve present cross-border oil spill response capabilities.
This handbook will provide the reader with basic knowledge about oil spills, response measures and the structural approaches of the individual South Baltic (SB) countries of Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Russia. It aims to close an existing information gap in relation to oil spill response without contradicting existing regulations and already established policies and guidelines. Furthermore, it aspires to improve international collaboration between local and regional authorities and facilitate their better interaction with the respective national incident managers. A certain number of both national and international workshops, as well as an expanded portfolio of capacity building activities based on a table top exercise have been implemented as part of this project; their most important findings and recommendations are summarized in the sections that follow.
The SBOIL project has designed and implemented a very wide range of activities (various SBOIL spill response exercises, national workshops and an international table top exercise), developed spill response scenarios and a biogenic spill response training kit to inform and train people engaged with oil spill response during and after the project. Furthermore, a designated station to be used in the future during a relevant emergency situation was created. Additionally, a biogenic spill response training package in the simulator setting (via a nautical simulator) was developed to cover the needs of the people that will handle this new equipment/technique.
As a starting point, this handbook will focus primarily on providing a comprehensive overview on oil spills in the South Baltic (SB) Sea area, including the related response measures in general. It will also summarize the above mentioned Baltic Sea countries’ structural approaches, as well as their respective legal frameworks in relation to the issue of oil spill response.
This handbook will also provide an insight into the lessons learnt from the tabletop exercise in Poland in 2018, as well as those derived from the national workshops that took place during the 2017-2019 timeframe in Sweden and Poland.
Captain VS Parani
Have you wondered what happens when things go wrong during the transport, such as when a shipment of televisions is received in damaged condition, a container of cigarettes is stolen, or, an important shipment of prawns is received a week too late for the local market? Well, this is what this book is all about!
In the modern global economy, finished and semi-finished products are transported in large volumes across the globe. Things do go wrong during such transport; then what recourse does the cargo owner have? How much loss will be made good by the insurers and under which convention? Where to sue? How much is the carrier liable for? With multiple modes of transport and different carriers, the questions of liability become very complex to determine. This translates into increased insurance and litigation costs, estimated at 500 million Euro per year in Europe alone.
Διεθνες και ευρωπαϊκο θεσμικο πλαισιο ασφαλειας του θαλασσιου περιβαλλοντος και συναφη συστη- ματα ελεγχου
Dimitrios Dalaklis and Georgios Chrysochou
The key characteristic of the contemporary world is the interconnectedness among societies and people across the national boundaries of nation-states. It is also necessary to note that nearly four fifths of international trade is being conducted by sea; only via the availability of commercial vessels, massive transport of goods in a society is made technically and financially possible. Among the several problems that can be encountered in short-distance navigation and in ocean-going navigation one must consider the potential for maritime accidents, sea and coastal pollution. Safety at sea is a key element of maritime transport policy with a view to protecting passengers, crew members, the marine environment and coastal regions. Given the global nature of maritime transport, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) develops uniform international standards. As a result of the pressure exerted by public opinion and the action taken by environmental organizations, the most important legislation and regulations of IMO were adopted following important maritime accidents. The primary international agreements include the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC 90). In addition, the International Safety Management Code (better known as ISM Code) is one of the most useful tools for the improvement of the safety of vessels and one of the pillars of the so called “quality navigation”. While prompt amendment of EU law to incorporate these international law-based agreements is a major objective of the EU’s maritime transport policy. EU participation in the development and improvement of the international agreements as well as the adoption of additional measures has been just as important. In recent years, European maritime transport administrations and the European shipping industry have made significant efforts to improve the environmental record of maritime transport. The EU regulatory framework has been strengthened and cooperation with Member States has been increased to tackle issues such as the prevention of accidents and incidents. Thus, European Union and its Member States have been at the forefront of improving maritime safety legislation and promoting high-quality standards. In the same context, the «Erika» and the «Prestige» accidents encouraged the Union to drastically reform its existing regime and to adopt new rules and standards for preventing accidents at sea, in particular those involving oil tankers. Looking ahead, the capacities of the EU’s maritime transport system are and should be strengthened by putting in place an integrated information management system [Common Information Sharing Environment (CISE) for the EU maritime domain]. This system, in its final stage, will enable the identification, monitoring, tracking and reporting of all vessels at sea and on inland waterways to and from European ports and in transit through or in close proximity to EU waters. It will further exploit, through integration process, the existing related systems and technologies, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), SafeSeanet, LRIT (Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships) and VTMIS (Vessel Traffic Management and Information System). On the other hand, with regard to the international law of the sea context, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) gives full priority to maritime environmental safety. With the aim to preserve the maritime ecosystem, UNCLOS promotes international cooperation, through which all individual actions of the stateparties are coordinated. Last, but not least, many initiatives and agreements have been put into place at regional level, with the example of the Mediterranean Sea states being characteristic through the Barcelona Declaration, the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC) and its related Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency. Obviously, cooperation of states – at global preferably or at least at a regional level - is a condition sine qua non for effective management of environmental problems, and especially those ones of the marine environment. This is because the oceans and seas of the world are not restricted by artificial human inventions, such as for example the political borders.
A. H. Pallikaris, G. Katsoulis, and Dimitrios Dalaklis
Title in English:
Electronic Navigation Equipment & Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS)
The main purpose of this book is to meet the new educational needs of maritime Education and Training for the Greek merchant Academies (courses “Electronic Equipment” and “Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems ECDIS” (both taught in the III year of studies), according to the revised standards of the STCW 78 Convention and by taking into account the Manila 2010 amendments. The purpose of this publication is to equip Cadets with the knowledge and capacity for the optimized use of all associated electronic instruments/equipment and the various systems that support the safe conduct of navigation; its structure allow to be used as a basic reference manual and support tool for the Officer of the Watch (OOW), as well as the vessel’s Master.
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