Document Type

Article Restricted

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Journal Title

Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health

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First Page




Antifouling paints have a lengthy history of environmental controversies and efforts toward developing safer formulations. However, recent attention from researchers has been directed toward the particles that detach from these paint coatings, known as antifouling paint particles (APPs). These APPs share similarities with other anthropogenic particles, such as microplastics, but exhibit distinct behaviors and comprise a more complex mixture of chemical components, including highly toxic biocides. Given the composition of APPs and their prevalence in marinas and boatyards, several environmental implications may arise. Nevertheless, field and ecotoxicological studies on this subject are still scarce. In this contribution, we examine the current state of knowledge regarding APPs and endeavor to address the following question: Should APPs be a subject of concern?