Document Type

Article Restricted

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Journal Title

Science of the Total Environment

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First Page




The maritime industry plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as an effort to combat the global issue of climate change. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is targeting a 50% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050 compared to 2008. To measure Singapore's progress towards this target, we have conducted a comprehensive analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the Western Singapore Straits based on the voyage data from Automatic Identification System (AIS) and static information from Singapore Maritime Data Hub (SG-MDH). Two methodologies, the MEET and TRENDS frameworks were applied to estimate the emission volume per vessel per hour. The data analysis results were next aggregated and visualised to answer key questions such as: How did the carbon emission level change from 2019 to 2020, in general, and for specific vessel types? What are the top vessel types and flags that had the highest carbon emissions? Did the traffic volume and emission level decrease during the Circuit Breaker period in 2020? The results of this study can be used to review Singapore's emission control measures and will be of value to the Maritime and Port Authority (MPA) of Singapore responsible for managing CO2 emissions at the Singapore Port.