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The economic aspects of the problem of invasive mosquitoes present a new challenge to science. The impacts of mosquitoes on humans are intensifying in many regions as several factors – such as climate change and increased transport – create favorable conditions for the entry of invasive mosquitoes. At the same time budget constraints limit public prevention measures and demand clear justification of additional costs for controlling invasive mosquitoes. Consequently, the benefits arising from preventive policies should be clearly articulated and in- cluded in the evaluation process. The present study evaluates the potential benefits of alternative prevention measures in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, representative of the geographically and climatically vulnerable Mediterranean cities. The study differentiates the health and nuisance costs associated with invasive mosquito species from those associated with native mosquito species. In contrast to other findings in the lit- erature, the benefits from controlling health impacts were found to be higher than those of avoiding nuisance. This is mainly related to the high health risk induced by new invasive species. Another important finding is that the expected benefits of mosquito control programs clearly outweigh the respective costs.