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Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
An intra-port coopetition model is proposed, which simultaneously characterizes both competition and cooperation among terminal operators in a port when competing with operators from external ports. Terminal operators make cooperative efforts to increase port competitiveness, while simultaneously making competitive efforts for price adjustment, cost and/or time reduction at individual terminals. Numerical analysis is performed considering private and public terminals characterized by different profit and social surplus maximization objectives. The results show that operator incentives change depending on the combinations of terminal ownership, and the private terminal tends to behave as a free rider in a public-private combination.