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Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures
This chapter analyzes main items of fabrication cost and maintenance cost of a ship focusing on hull structure part, based on the actual data from shipyards and ship owners and the relations between these costs. Fabrication cost occupies more than 30%. Hull structural part occupies about 50% and outfitting part occupies about 15%, depending on the features of ships. Building cost is a part of life cycle cost and occupies a big amount. It is considered that building cost occupies about 2/3 of life cycle cost and maintenance cost occupies about 1/3. Material cost of a ship occupies a big amount and reaches to 50–60 % of the total building cost. Among material costs, steel cost is the biggest one and occupies 35%. By increasing the application ratio of higher tensile strength steel from 23% to 80% of hull structural steel, total steel weight is reduced by about 6% and building cost is reduced by about 1%. Maintenance costs are influenced by the management policies of ship owners. Inspections are generally made at periodical survey and intermediate survey in accordance with ship classification rules. In some ships, self inspections are made by ship owners and crews. By utilizing this information the scopes and costs of repairs are estimated. By applying heavy duty painting to very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) at the building stage the life cycle cost will be reduced by about 3% compared with an ordinarily painted one.