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The costs and benefits of sulphur reduction measures: Sulphur scrubbers versus marine gas oil
This paper examines the costs and benefits of reduction measures for the shipping industry to comply with the forthcoming sulphur emission regulations. Sulphur scrubbers and marine gas oil are two promising alternatives for ship owners. However, their economic comparisons are primarily based on a private perspective. This paper provides a wider viewpoint by integrating the private abatement costs of ship owners and the social environmental benefits from emission reduction. The results showed that the price spread between marine gas oil and heavy fuel oil is a determining factor in making this choice. Marine gas oil tends to have higher net present values than scrubbers when the price spread of fuel is less than 231 Euros per tonne. Furthermore, it is more beneficial to install a scrubber on new ships than retrofits. An old ship is not suitable for a scrubber installation when its remaining lifespan is less than 4 years.