Off-campus WMU users: To download campus access articles, please use the following link to log in with your WMU ID and password: log in to proxy server

Document Type

Article Restricted

Publication Date


Journal Title

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment

Volume Number


Issue Number


First Page


Last Page



In the fight to reduce CO2 emissions from international shipping, a bunker-levy is currently under consideration at the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Faced with the inability of the IMO to reach an agreement in the short term, the European Commission is now contemplating a unilateral measure of a speed limit for all ships entering European Union (EU) ports. This paper argues that this measure is counterproductive for two reasons. Firstly, because it may ultimately generate more emissions and incur a cost per ton of CO2 which is more than society is willing to pay. Secondly, because it is sub-optimal compared to results obtained if an international bunker-levy was to be implemented. These elements are illustrated using two direct transatlantic services operated in 2010.