This article discusses how the Chinese seafood industry will affect the rest of the world's fishing industries. The analysis is based on theories of economic comparative advantage, the international division of labour and the internationalization process related to trade activities. Given the increasing domestic demand for fish in China, the limited availability of domestic fish stocks and less success for farmed marine fish in China are considered some of the most important factors in restricting the growth in Chinese seafood production. The necessity of raw fish imports into China may increase pressure on global fish stocks and international fish prices, resulting in tighter supplies worldwide and higher seafood prices for the Chinese. Sustainable fish harvests and trade require stronger fishery management, in particular in the relations between seafood companies and governments along the entire international value chain supplying China. Such structural changes may allow new value-added possibilities for fish farming and the upgrading of certain fish species for human consumption that were previously utilized purely for fish feed.