Environmental Pollution (1970)
The effects of a number of oils (one crude and two refined products) were tested under various conditions on larvae and adults of the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus. Acute toxicity tests were performed, as well as long-term bioassays. Larvae were found to be several hundred times more sensitive to the oils than the adults during acute exposure. A number of sublethal effects appeared during long-term bioassays. The adults showed impaired swimming performance, decreased tendency to precopulate, impaired light reaction and decreased production of larvae. Decreased growth was found among larvae during chronic exposure to crude oil. Delayed mortality occurred among adults after a short-term exposure to crude oil with a long recovery period.