Threats, challenges and opportunities to marine protected areas in the coral triangle area: a case study of Indonesia sea
The Coral triangle is world epicenter of marine biodiversity and covers the tropical area between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Indonesia is one of the countries in The Coral Triangle thas has committed to support Aichi Biodiversity Targets by enhancing the status of biodiversity protection including coastal and marine areas at least 10%, reaching 20 million Ha in 2020. However, there are many issues arise in managing this rich marine biodiversity. One of the threats is ship grounding, for example, in 20017, the Calledonian Sky cannot be a risk but it is a real happened causing huge impact to marine environment in Raja Ampat, Indonesia while the challenges is providing adaptive management and governance for MPAs. Furthermore, to provide recommendation of MPA management in Indonesia SWOT and followed by Modified Institutional Analysis and Development IAD through systematic literature review, interview and GIS analysis. Data are gathered from Ministries in Indonesia (Ministry of Marine Affairs, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs) and some stakeholders such as NGOs. There are several recommendation provided for ship grounding and MPA management which are effective and integrated adaptive MPA management, long-term analysis of ship traffic, ship line in MPA zone for tourism purpose and monitoring of ship traffic, liability and compensation of ship accident, Particularly Sea Sensitive Areas (PSSA) designation.