Compliance and enforcement for the exclusive economic zone fisheries management in the United Republic of Tanzania
The Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ fisheries in Tanzania is important for food, employment, and income revenues. The EEZ fishery was operated by DWFNs fleets and the mode of fishing are purse seine and long line. The Management of the EEZ fishery is controlled by the Deep Sea Fishing Authority (DSFA) according to the DSFA Act 1998 and its amendments of 2007 and the Regulation 2009 and its amendment of 2016. In addition, the International legal regime such as UNCLOS 1982, FAO Compliance Agreement 1993, UNFSA 1995, IPOA - IUU fishing 2001, PSMA 2009. Regional level are IOTC and SWIOFC requirements. This dissertation is advocating the compliance and enforcement of the EEZ fisheries Management in Tanzania because strong Fisheries Monitoring Center (FMC) which is responsible for MCS activities such as observer program, inspection program, aerial surveillance, joint sea patrols (boarding inspection), dockside inspection (pre license Inspection and landing inspection) Vessel Monitoring System Themis Web base System (VMS) and Automatic Identification System (AIS). Despite the legal regime, MCS activities, still, this dissertation is advocating the noncompliance activities from DWFN fleets which are IUU fishing, overfishing, and destruction of marine habitats. This dissertation observed the gaps and weaknesses in the legal and policy framework, institutional capacity (MCS) and lack of offshore patrol vessel. This dissertation is concludes and recommendes that EEZ Acts and Regulations should be reviewed to be compatible with international and regional requirements regarding fisheries management, MCS and fisheries science. The URT should establish stronger legal penalties and fines regarding fishing crimes. Strengthen cooperation with regional fisheries bodies and WIO countries by sharing information regarding highly migratory species and IUU fishing within the EEZ of Tanzania.