Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Maritime Affairs


Maritime Safety & Environmental Administration


Malmö, Sweden


South Korea

First Advisor

Baldauf, Michael.


This dissertation is a study on Ship’s routeing and Port zoning Audit Scheme (SPAS) for eradicating or reducing risky circumstantial factors of marine casualties and incidents in coastal waters. It aims to show methods of preventing marine accident from the human element, and to discuss the further development for the maritime safety system of the Republic of Korea as the world’s first compulsory scientific audit scheme on ship’s routeing and port zoning. At the outset, this study intended to review the statistics of marine accidents to analyse which causes and places should be focused on to secure maritime safety. It also attempted to analyse serious marine accidents which occurred in ports and approaches. This was to demonstrate which tools were applied successfully to reduce marine accidents caused by the human element. A controversy over a harbour bridge was introduced to prove the importance of objective ship handling simulation. The STCW, Navigational Aids, the ISM Code and the User-Centred Design were studied as methods of reducing human errors in error enforcing circumstances. To verify that the IMO’s safety measures on the human element are corresponding to all categories of human errors, the Marine Casualty Investigation Code of the IMO was referred to. It was found that the IMO could contribute further to preparing any appropriate measures to deal with the loose interface between liveware and the environment, in other words, navigators and the navigational circumstances. Accordingly, it reviewed the schemes of several maritime States that were relevant to safety of navigation in ports and approaches. As a successful example, the SPAS of the Republic of Korea was analysed. The SPAS is evaluated in Korea as an effective risk finding system in port design and its operation, and a tool for providing the navigators in coastal waters with a better navigational environment. In addition, from the shore-based perspectives, the SPAS has reduced social disputes over maritime safety and accelerated economic construction of infrastructures. Despite of the successful implementation of the SPAS project, some issues are still open. Chapter 5.5 provides the future direction of the SPAS system as the world’s first compulsory scientific audit scheme on ship’s routeing and port zoning. Also it contains some recommendations to policy planners for achieving efficient port construction and management taking into account safe navigation. Ultimately, this dissertation aimed to study how human error as a principal causation factor would not turn in marine accidents in heavy traffic zones such as coastal waters. At the end, it is reiterated that the human element and navigator-friendly circumstances should be considered together in order to reduce marine accidents in coastal waters, to protect the marine environment and to save human lives at sea.