Bisma Khan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Maritime Affairs


Maritime Safety & Environmental Administration


Malmö, Sweden



First Advisor

Ölçer, Aykut


The study of human factors has emerged as a critical element in understanding and improving the safety requirements of Pakistan’s shipyard. The dissertation attempts to study human factors in the risk-based environment and challenging duties of the employees associated with shipyard resulting in accidents and injuries.

While technology and equipment contribute to safety, human actions, decisions, and behaviours often play a critical role in causing accidents. As the number of accidents was increasing in the shipyard, the researcher realised the need to explore contributing factors. A quantitative survey approach was adopted to collect information. The results were compared among employees of various job designations, including officers, supervisors, technical assistants, workers, and sub-contractor workers, to determine which category was primarily affected.

Most accidents are caused by human errors; therefore, the human element plays a crucial role in the maritime industry. This research examined the accident investigation reports of Shipyard of Pakistan in order to understand the causes of human error in complex systems to prevent future accidents. The Research utilised the HFACS method to achieve a thorough understanding of the accident's causes and analyse all contributing factors, related to human performance and behaviour.

In order to understand and improve the complex interactions between human and organization, a multidisciplinary approach is acquired. At the end, the results were organised and assessed, which may help shipyard to identify the potential hazards, improve workplace design, enhance training programs, and optimize overall system performance.