Including stakeholder's perspectives on mangrove ecosystems degradation and restoration to support blue carbon in Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanziba

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Maritime Affairs


Oceans Sustainability, Governance & Management


Malmö, Sweden


United Republic of Tanzania

First Advisor

Hollander, Johan


The mangrove ecosystems hold immense significance for the Earth and the coastal communities. For instance, the Western Indian Ocean communities rely heavily on the mangrove ecosystem for their livelihoods, as it provides them with energy sources, building materials, eco-tourism opportunities, and local medicine.

Additionally, the mangrove ecosystem plays a crucial role in carbon sequestration, regulation of coastal erosion, water purification, soil formation, and nutrient cycling. Zanzibar communities have also recognized these benefits, and have used the mangrove ecosystems as a source of building materials. However, despite these benefits, anthropogenic factors stress the mangrove ecosystems more.

The structured interview methodology was used to investigate the perceptions of 90 community households from Cheju, Pete, and Kitogani villages part of JCBNP, as well as the perception of 07 professionals from the Zanzibar Ministry of Blue Economy and Fisheries, Jozani Environmental Conservation Association (JECA), Western Indian Ocean Mangrove Network (WIOMN), and Zanzibar Forest Department to examine the Stakeholder's perspectives on mangrove ecosystems degradation and restoration to support blue carbon in the JCBNP, Zanzibar.

The findings show similarities between professionals and community perspectives regarding anthropogenic activities, such as the need for energy sources, urbanization, agricultural expansion, insufficient law enforcement, and a lack of community awareness, have put pressure on the mangrove ecosystem.

Furthermore, natural factors such as climate change variations have contributed to this stress of Magrove ecosytems degradation. If appropriate measures are not implemented, the community anticipates a cascade of negative consequences, including but not limited to the sea level rise, the depletion of marine species and habitats, soil erosion, loss of income sources and food security, the depletion of building materials, food insecurity, and the emission of greenhouse gases(GHG).

From the findings, both professional and community perspectives emphasized capacity-building on mangrove ecosystems restoration and management projects, mangrove ecosystem afforestation programs, and the establishment of alternative energy sources that may contribute toward the mangrove ecosystem restoration and management to support blue carbon.