Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Maritime Affairs


Maritime Education & Training


Malmö, Sweden



First Advisor

Muirhead, Peter M.


There are limitations in accuracy in using operational navigational aids separately. The aim of this study is to construct an integration model of high accuracy that can be used on board merchant ships in order to Improve navigational safety. The study examines the theoretical concepts and benefits of an integrated navigation position fixing scheme. In particular, the study concentrats on the aspect of Integration between two radio navigational positioning fixing systems; GPS which is used as the prime source, and Loran-C which is used as the back-up system. The integration between these two systems will be developed in a manner which produces a hybrid receiver. The study also examines the types of errors and classes of accuracy measures. In addition to the integration between GPS and Loran-C the study deals with the design of a navigational system which Includes most essential marine navigation sensors and systems within the hybrid Loran-C/GPS system in order to provide a high level of performance over the widest possible area on board merchant ships. Special attention is paid in chapter Five to the problems encountered in congested waters, especially in the Gulf of Suez (GOS). This chapter discusses with the problems and difficulties of safe of navigation in the GOS, in addition to traffic separation schemes (TSS) and vessel traffic services CVTS). The chapter examines how the proposed system can ensure the safe movement of vessels passing the GOS. In chapter six, a brief look is taken of present methods of Maritime Education and Training (MET), and the effect of simulators in all fields of MET. Finally, a number of recommendations are made concerning the need for a hybrid Loran-C/GPS system, the need to establish a Loran-C system in Egypt, and the need to upgrade all kinds of marine services in the GOS.