Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Maritime Affairs


Maritime Education & Training


Malmö, Sweden


Saudi Arabia

First Advisor

Zade, Guenther


Navigation constitutes the major part of safety at sea; the more accurate position fixing, the more safety exists. Nowadays Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most accurate system but it exists only in a few countries. However, to promote standard navigation, GPS should exist all around the world. It is not only used for position fixing at sea, but also in the air and on land. GPS is more accurate position fixing system than any other existing system with world coverage. The plan is for an absolute accuracy of within 100m to be available to the general user such as the merchant marines of all countries. An accuracy of about 16m will be obtained by the US and NATO military and other authorized users. Besides position fixing in three dimensions (longitude, latitude and altitude above sea level) GPS will provide the user with velocity information and with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). Because of the high accuracy in three dimensions, GPS could also be used for geodetic and other purposes. Since Saudi Arabia has an important role to play in International Trade and Economy, the application of GPS would enable the country to embrace the future in the correct manner. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has a very long coast with many coral reefs along the Red Sea and a heavy trafficated coast on the Arabian Gulf. GPS is, therefore, necessary for the coast guard to maintain its duty properly and safely.