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Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review
This paper aims to reconstruct the shipping service network between Asia and Europe by considering the improvement of New Eurasian Land Bridge rail services and Budapest-Piraeus railway. In particular, to reflect the decision making process in reality, a bi-level programming model is established to maximize the total profit of the liner shipping company in the upper level and meanwhile to minimize the total cost of the shippers in the lower level. Computational experiments considering different scenarios are conducted to obtain the new optimal networks under different cases. Several insightful findings are observed, further leading to useful managerial insights.