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Journal of Transport Geography
This study presents dynamic models to forecast container throughput in the North Adriatic ports of Koper, Trieste, Venice, Ravenna, and Rijeka. Based on the numbers derived, we found a simple but efficient model to forecast the likelihood of increasing or decreasing traffic from year to year. The models are prepared based on available data; they are the Markov-chain annual growth rate model, a time-series trend model, a time-series trend model with periodical terms, and the gray system model. In the second part of the study, we explore a model for analyzing cooperation/competition relationships between these ports using a generalized Lotka–Volterra dynamic system.